This dedicated volume in the series Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery (ATSN) provides a comprehensive approach to diseases of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and their management based on the multidisciplinary cooperation of neurosurgeons, anatomists, neuroradiologists, and neuroanesthesiologists. The contributing authors represent the most renowned clinical and surgical experts from Europe and beyond. The main topics highlighted are embryology, normal and abnormal development of the CVJ, including the related vessels, modern radiological contributions to diagnosis, genetic and metabolic factors which may impact on the surgical strategies, the opportunities offered by traditional operative techniques, and the recently introduced minimally invasive and endoscopic surgical modalities.
Developmental and acquired malformations
Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus.
- Malformations of the occipital sclerotome.
- Malformations of atlas vertebra.
- Malformation of axis and odontoid process.
- Developmental and acquired malformations.
The cranio-vertebral junction is formed by the occipital condyles, atlas (C1), axis (C2) vertebrae and their articulations. Any process which can give rise to malformation of these structures may result in CVJ anomaly. It can be due to congenital, developmental or acquired cause.